Last modified: 2018-12-02 by ivan sache
Keywords: andalusia |
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Flag of CUT - Image by Ivan Sache, 10 September 2017
Candidatura Unitaria de Trabajadores/as (CUT; website) is "the political organization of the transforming Andalusian left, anti-capitalist,
revolutionary and nationalist, of the workers who struggle for the
national rights (sovereignty and national emancipation), in the quest of
an Andalusian People's Republic, part of a new socialist international
order, above the class conflict and the capitalist system."
The party originates in the establishment in 1979 of a political branch by the farm workers union (SOC). It experienced several name changes, the last one being to Colectivo de Unidad de los Trabajadores-Bloque Andaluz de Izquierdas (CUT-BAI) in 1999 and to its present name in 2014.
Following the self-dissolution of the Partido Andalucista in September 2015, the CUT became the main nationalist party in Andalusia. The party obtained one seat at the Congress and two seats at the Andalusian Parliament.
The flag of CUT (photo, photo) is horizontally divided green-white-green with the red letters "CUT" in the center, therefore similar to the flag of the Andalusian Workers' Union (SAT).
Ivan Sache, 10 September 2017
Flag of Partido Andalucista - Image by António Martins, 15 January 2004
The Partido Andalucista (PA) was established in 1976 as the Partido
Socialista de Andalucía (PSA) and renamed to its current name in 1984 to
prevent confusion with the PSOE.
The PA obtained five seats at the Congress in 1979 and ten at the Andalusian Parliament during the 1990 legislature. The party also managed to obtain three seats at the Catalan Parliament after the first local elections, held in 1980.
During its four decades of existence, the PA ruled big towns, such as Seville, Algeciras and Jerez de la Frontera. Pedro Pacheco, Mayor of Jerez for 24 years, is now in jail for collusion.
Intern disputes caused the decline of the PA, which lost its
representation at the Andalusian Parliament in 2008, one year after
having fiercely opposed to the reform of the autonomy statutes of
Andalusia. The party also lost popularity after having governed
Andalusia in coalition with the PSOE for two legislatures. The PA failed
to obtain any seat in the 2008 and 2012 local elections; in 2016, the
party obtained only 60,707 votes (1.53%), being ranked the 7th political
party in Andalusia.
In September 2015, the majority (78%) of the party's delegates, gathered in Torremolinos for the 17th National Congress of the PA, agreed with the political declaration tabled by Antonio Jesús Ruiz, Secretary General of the party. In practice, the party will cease all political activity, will no more compete in election and will maintain only a "minimal structure" for the support of the 319 councillors elected in the last municipal elections.
[El Pais, 12 September 2015]
The flag of the PA (photo, photo, photo, photo) was the Andalusian flag with a red triangle placed along the hoist, charged with the party's logo, a white hand within a circle.
Ivan Sache & Francisco M. García, 10 September 2017
Flag of Juventudes Andalucistas - Image by António Martins, 15 January 2004
The flag of Juventudes Andalucistas, the youth branch of the Partido Andalucista, differs from the flag of the mother party by the charge in the red triangle, a white five-pointed star instead of the party emblem.
Francisco M. García, 14 September 2001
Flag of Partido Nacionalista Andaluz Somos Andaluces - Image by Tomislav Todorović, 11 September 2017
Partido Nacionalista Andaluz Somos Andaluces was presented on 21
February 2016 in El Puerto de Santa María.
According to its federal coordinator, Pedro Ignacio Altamirano, the new
party should be the opposite of the Partido Andalucista (respected for
its 50-years long history but criticized for its failed management and
[ ABC, 21 February 2016]
The flag of the party (photo, photo, photo, photo, photo, photo) is horizontally divided green-white-green with a blue eight-pointed star.
The eight-pointed star has been called the "official symbol of
Andalusia" because of the many buildings and architectural elements in
the region that are decorated with versions of this ancient symbol. Some
archaeologists have noted that the eight-pointed star was part of
Spanish architecture before the Muslim period and consider it an early
solar symbol of unknown origin. A few historians have suggested that the
eight-pointed star was a symbol of Tartessos, an ancient civilization
that existed in Andalusia from approximately the 11th to the 6th
centuries BCE. Gold and other precious objects found among Tartessian
remains indicate that the culture was rich in resources and artistic
expression. The ultimate fate of Tartessos is unknown, and some have
speculated that Tartessos is the same as the wealthy culture of Tarshish
mentioned in the Bible. Other more sensationalized accounts have
speculated that Tartessos was the legendary city of Atlantis. These
speculations, while perhaps romantic, have not been confirmed by
In 712, following the Omayyad conquest of Andalusia, the eight-pointed star symbol was printed on coins representing the autonomous region. From this point, the star motifs already present in Andalusia were co-opted by Islamic artitst and architects, and the eight-pointed figure became a popular motif in Moorish Islmic architecture. The eight-pointed motif is also common in Omayyad architecture in Jerusalem, especially in the Dome of the Rock, an Omayyad shrine that is built in the shape of an octagon. The eight-pointed star shape is incorporated into many aspects of the dome, reflecting the widespread decorative use of thus symbol within the empire.
[M. Issitt & C. Main. 2014. Hidden Religion: The Greatest Mysteries and Symbols of the World's Religious Beliefs]
Flag of Nación Andaluza - Image by Jorge Candeias, 31 August 1999
Nación Andaluza (website) was established on 18 March 1990 in Marbella.
Nación Andaluza is "an independentist and socialist political organization, whose aim is the national liberation of the country and the social liberation of the people. A nationalist and revolutionary movement. A sovereignist, anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist collective, which struggles for a free Andalusia."
The flag of Nación Andaluza is horizontally divided green-white-green with a red star in the center. The flag appears to be commonly used in nationalist demonstrations, not necessarily by members of Nación Andaluza (photo, photo, photo, photo, photo, photo, photo).
Other flag of Nación Andaluza - Image by Ivan Sache, 10 September 2017
In a street demonstration, a copy of the flag with the star black instead of red was used (photo), together with the regular flag featuring the red star.
Ivan Sache & Francisco M. García, 10 September 2017
Flag and emblem of ANA - Images by Eugene Ipavec, 4 October 2010
Asamblea Nacional Andaluza (website) is an association aiming at "fostering
citizen's participation in the knowledge of the cultural identity of
Andalusia" (Statutes, Article 3).
In the "Declaration for an Andalusian state", ANA is presented as "a people's, unitarian, plural and democratic organization" aiming at "awaking the Andalusian people's consciences and recover, in a pacific way and respecting the law, political sovereignty via the constitution of a republican, democratic and social Andalusian state."
Proposed flag of the Andalusian state - Image by Tomislav Todorović, 10 September 2017
The proposed flag for the future Andalusian state (photo) is horizontally divided green-white-red with a red triangle placed along the hoist,
charged with the aforementioned emblem in white.
The flag is, therefore, similar to the flag of the defunct Partido Andalucista, once the main Andalusian nationalist movement.
Flag of Ateneo Cultural Andaluz Arbonaida - Image by Ivan Sache, 10 September 2007
Ateneo Cultural Andaluz Arbonaida (website) was founded on 30 November 2012 in El Cuervo de Sevilla by Gonzalo Amarillo Ruiz, José María Cala Guerrero, José Manuel Gómez Arriaza, Antonio Amarillo Ramírez, Juan Francisco Rodríguez Bellido and Manuel Pérez Delgado.
The aims of the association are (Statutes, Article 3):
- to foster and promote culture in general, and the values of the Andalusian culture, in particular;
- to foster sense of belonging to the Andalusian people;
- to transmit the history of Andalusia and foster studies and research on the Andalusian identity;
- to defend and promote the Andalusian dialect as a sign of the Andalusian identity;
- to popularize the figure of Blas Infante as the Father of the Andalusian Homeland;
- to transmit the history and the cultural values of El Cuervo de Sevilla and its surroundings;
- to contribute with other entities and societies to the organization and management of events fostering the Andalusian culture;
- to organize and participate to cultural events and festivals of any kind.
"Arbonaida" is the name given to the Andalusian flag in some nationalist circles, allegedly meaning "green and white" in Mozarab language.
The association has created a flag horizontally divided green-white-green, charged in the middle with a red, elaborated eight-pointed star (photo, photo, photo, photo, photo photo, photo).
Ivan Sache, 11 September 2017
Flag of Jaluo!!! - Image by Ivan Sache, 11 September 2007
Jaleo!!! (Twitter account) is "a youth, independentist, Marxist-Leninist and feminist organization that had been struggling for the liberation of the Andalusian people since 1996."
jaleo is defined by the Diccionario de la Real Academia de la Lengua (Española)as a "popular Andalusian dance as well as the cheering, clapping and chanting that accompanies it".
The jaleo is a necessary and intricate component of flamenco. It usually
serves as an accompaniment and encouragement for flamenco's other
components. I have also heard cuadros perform the jaleo very effectively
as a solo number.
The jaleo is basically made up of hand-clapping and shouts of encouragement, and can also be supplemented by finger-snapping and rhythmical punctuations with the feet (from a sitting position). The hand-clapping is composed of two techniques [...]
Three good jaleadores can sound like ten. One will carry the rhythm, another the counter-rhythm, and the third will weave in and about the jaleo of the other two. If there are more jaleadores, they will select one of these three courses, adding an exciting impetus and strength. Among the shouts of encouragement will be heard olé (approval), asi se canta or asi se baila (that's the way to sing, or dance), and an infinite number of others, usually spontaneous, often humorous.
[D.E. Pohren. The Art of Flamenco. 2005]
The flag of Jaleo!!! (photo) is horizontally divided green-white-green with the movement's emblem in the center.
The emblem is made of a light green map of Andalusia, ending on its left as an eight-pointed star charged with a red hammer and sickle. The name of the movement is written beneath the map. Another eight-pointed star, filled with a black disk inscribing a red star, is placed at the left of the "J".
Ivan Sache & Esteban Rivera, 17 September 2007
Flag of AxSí - Image by Ivan Sache, 10 September 2007
Andalucía por Sí (AxSí; website), presented on 8 June 2016 in Cádiz, is "an Andalusian political party, established to democratically contribute to the determination of the national politics of Andalusia". AxSí is "a body of exclusive Andalusian obedience".
The flag of AxSí (photo) is green with a black square charged with the party's logo, here with the graphical element and "Por Sí" in light green and "Andalucía" in white.
Ivan Sache, 10 September 2007